If you have ever wondered about how many varieties of coffee there are, what distinguishing features are between them and what particularities make them unique, this is the article you were looking for. Next, we will present the information you need.
Varieties of coffee that are grown.
There are more than 120 species under the genus Coffea. However, two are the most used for daily use (Arabica and Robusta), followed by the Liberica variety. The species of coffee for consumption are:
2. Robusta (canephora)
This species is the most cultivated worldwide. Originally from Ethiopia, it takes
cultivating for more than 2000 years in ancient Yemen. This variety accounts for 60% of the planted area worldwide.
The flavor of its roasted beans is soft and sweet with a medium and balanced acidity. Coffees with a cup of excellence generally come from Arabica coffee varieties. Unlike Liberica and Robusta coffee, they are very susceptible to pests and diseases.
Within Arabica coffee there are two main varieties, they are: Tipyca and bourbon.
The Bourbon variety comes from Yemen, from where it spread to Kenya and Tanzania. Unlike the Tipyca variety, which was carried by the Dutch to the island of Java and surrounding islands.
Its origin is in West Africa, it is the second most cultivated in the world, behind the Arabica. It is a variety within the Canephora coffee.
It is a small tree, easy to grow, very resistant to drought and diseases. These characteristics make it ideal for areas such as Vietnam and South America.
Being such a resistant variety, it has a high caffeine content and a much more bitter taste than other varieties. It is generally used to make blends (mixtures of robusta coffee with a small part of arabica coffee, which attenuates the strong flavor of robusta) and for soluble coffee.
Lately, treatment processes have been implemented for this variety of coffee that give it more complex notes and therefore a higher quality coffee.
Within the Robusta there are 4 varieties: Uganda, Kouilloi, Niaouli and Conilón.
It comes from Liberia, West Africa. It has a niche market in some regions of Africa and Scandinavia. It is cultivated in areas such as the Philippines, Liberia, the Ivory Coast, etc.
Like the robusta, it is very resistant to diseases and pests. Generally, it is considered a low quality coffee due to the collection method, since due to the height of the trees it is difficult to collect the grain and the fruits that are collected are those that fall to the ground overripe. Which gives cup defects that are covered by roasting the beans a lot, hence its strong and smoky flavor. The grains are larger than those of other varieties and with an asymmetrical shape.